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What are BMI, TBF, VFI, TBW, SM, BMC, BMR, DCI parameters in Body Composition

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The below content has been drilled down from the different sources available in the internet. So the content is subject to copyrights for the respective sites.

As we all have the recent BCA(Body Composition Analysis), it triggers my mind to write this post for the benefit of the people.

After the results in hand, I saw so many people dropped their jaws and quite surprise for the results. But most people stopped at, to figure it out, what does each ACRONYM stands and compared with the ideal range. And there is still more to dig out. This post helps in that.

Jaw Drop Questions:
* How they calculated the body fat by simple holding the arms of a machine(BIA)?
* The results and appearance are quite contradicting? Those who are lean, have high VFI%

Try to find the answers:
* What it means each level of index calculated?
* How to overcome on each level of index?

BODY MASS INDEX (BMI):

I hope this term is not new for the millineals. It is the basic height and weight calculation to fit into the ideal group. So I am skipping how it was calculated.

But the interesting facts and myths about BMI are here:
1. BMI is not used for muscle builders, long distance athletes, pregnant women, the elderly or young children. This is because BMI does not take into account whether the weight is carried as muscle or fat, just the number. Those with a higher muscle mass, such as athletes, may have a high BMI but not be at greater health risk. Those with a lower muscle mass, such as children who have not completed their growth or the elderly who may be losing some muscle mass may have a lower BMI. During pregnancy and lactation, a woman's body composition changes, so using BMI is not appropriate.
2. One problem with BMI is that it cannot tell the difference between weight coming from fat and weight coming from muscle. This means that people with a lot of muscle (e.g. International rugby players, body builders) will often have a BMI higher than 25 but will still be healthy. This is why you must always check your waist measurement at the same time as your BMI.
3. BMI was actually made to look at the health of larger populations. It was not designed for individuals to track their health. Again, BMI is often used to describe a population and identify relationships in a population, but should never be used to try to predict anything for an individual.
4. Although BMI in itself is an accurate indicator of someone’s weight situation, there are other variables which need to be taken into consideration to make the results even more conclusive. These variables include things like age, gender and waist circumference. When all these factors are considered in addition to the BMI results, the one can get the true measure of their health.
5. Your waist circumference is also an important measurement to help you figure out your overall health risks. If most of your fat is around your waist, then you are more at risk for heart disease and diabetes. This risk increases with a waist measurement that is:
■ Greater than 35 inches for women
■ Greater than 40 inches for men
6. People with BMIs between 18.5 and 25 have less chance of developing diseases like cancer, heart disease and diabetes.  As BMI goes up, the chances of developing these diseases also increases.  The risk for these diseases particularly goes up once BMI is over 30.

So the bottom line is, even if you have more and less than ideal BMI, don't worry, take the other factors into consideration for conclusion.

Total Body Fat(TBF%):

TBF is calculated in the percentage, total body fat (TBF) as a whole is also an indicator of unhealthy body status of an individual.

Body tissues containing more water conduct electricity easily whereas fat tissue is a poor conductor. This feature is used to calculate body fat content.

Lets see how it was calculated by "bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA)" technology

"During the measurement, the instrument records impedance from the hands to the feet, which corresponds to the whole body impedance, by applying an electric alternating current flux of 500 μA at an operating frequency of 50 kHz. Consequently, BF % was calculated from the impedance value and the pre entered personal data. Total body water was predicted from the impedance index (height/impedance)."

Body Fat Percentage is the proportion of fat to the total body weight. Body fat is the amount of fat that one has apart from one's bones, water content, muscles and various organs. Your fitness level depends on two components - body fat and body muscle. Two different people of same height and of same age may weigh the same and have the same BMI but their fat and muscle content may differ. One of them may have more of muscle and less of fat and vice versa for the other.

Body fat is essential for maintaining body temperature, cushioning joints and protecting internal organs. Body composition monitors can help you keep track of your body fat. The energy, or calories, our body needs comes from what we eat and drink. Energy is burned through physical activity and general bodily functions. If you consume the same number of calories as you burn, all the calories are converted into energy. But if you consume more than you burn, excess calories are stored in fat cells. If this stored fat is not converted into energy later, it creates excess body fat. Although you need healthy body fat, too much fat can damage your long-term health. Reducing excess levels of body fat has been shown to directly reduce the risk of certain conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Too little body fat may lead to osteoporosis in later years, irregular periods in women and possible infertility. It is important to keep track of your body fat.

Complete Guide on Body Fat - https://www.myfitfuel.in/mffblog/complete-guide-body-fat-percentage/


Visceral Fat Index(VFI):

Visceral fat is located deep in the core abdominal area, surrounding and protecting the vital organs. Even if your weight and body fat remains constant, as you get older the distribution of fat changes and is more likely to shift to the abdominal area. Ensuring you have a healthy level of visceral fat directly reduces the risk of certain diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure and may delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.

As said, Visceral fat or extra abdominal fat that lies much below the layer of subcutaneous layer acts as a cushion around the body organs. Excess levels of this fat deposition have been proposed to cause a number of health concerns such as diabetes, hypertension, anxiety, depression, sexual dysfunction, hyperinsulinemia and coronary heart disease. The amount of visceral fat increases in an age dependent manner, in both men and women. It has also been shown to be clinically relevant with respect to metabolic complications and adverse health effects.

Precautions for Visceral Fat Control:
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/lose-visceral-fat#section2


Total Body Water(%):


The average percentage of body weight that is water will remain above 50 percent for most or all of your life, though it does decline over time.

The decreasing water percentage through the years is due in large part to having more body fat and less fat-free mass as you age. Fatty tissue contains less water than lean tissue, so your weight and body composition affect the percentage of water in your body.

The only way to keep your Total Body Water in ideal position, is it to drink sufficient amount of water. The amount of water intake varies to different individuals.

Here is the ideal calculation of how much water you should drink.
Water intake per day = 0.03 litres * weight in kg

Precautions for less TBW : 
https://www.askdrsears.com/topics/feeding-eating/family-nutrition/water-wise/10-ways-improve-your-hydration-habits


Skeletal Muscle(SM):


Skeletal muscle (SM) content of the body and muscle specific force (force per unit physiological cross-sectional area of muscle) is indicative of the physical activity as well as the nutritional intake of the individual.

Building muscle mass is not only about going to the gym and lifting. There is an important rule to remember: eating for muscles is just as important as lifting. Combine training with eating well.

To build muscles, your body needs protein. Therefore it is important to include lots of proteins in your new diet. Think about products like chicken, turkey, yogurt, beans, nuts and different kinds of fish. However, don’t forget you also need carbohydrates and healthy fats. Keep your diet varied and eat enough vegetables in addition to the protein-rich food in order to gain muscle.

Muscles act as an engine in consuming energy. As your muscle mass increases, the rate at which you burn energy (calories) increases which accelerates your basal metabolic rate (BMR) and helps you reduce excess body fat levels and lose weight in a healthy way.


BONE MINERAL CONTENT(BMC) or Bone Mass:

The predicted weight of bone mineral in your body.

Ways to build your bone:
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/build-healthy-bones#section11

BASAL METABOLIC RATE(BMR):

The daily minimum level of energy or calories your body requires when at rest (including sleeping) in order to function effectively.

Increasing muscle mass will speed up your basal metabolic rate (BMR). A person with a high BMR burns more calories at rest than a person with a low BMR. About 70% of calories consumed every day are used for your basal metabolism. Increasing your muscle mass helps raise your BMR, which increases the number of calories you burn and helps to decrease body fat levels. Your BMR measurement can be used as a minimum baseline for a diet programme. Additional calories can be included depending on your activity level. The more active you are the more calories you burn and the more muscle you build, so you need to ensure you consume enough calories to keep your body fit and healthy.

A slow BMR will make it harder to lose body fat and overall weight.

Daily Calorie Intake(DCI):

An estimate of how many calories you can consume within the next 24 hours to maintain your current weight.


Body Fat Calculator:
Body Fat Calculator

Calorie Intake Calculator:
Calorie Calculator


References:
https://tanita.eu/help-guides/understanding-measurements
Calculators : https://www.omnicalculator.com/health#s-62

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